The Evolution of Women’s Portrayal in Bollywood and its Reflection on India’s Changing Gender Roles and Societal Norms

Research Question: How has the portrayal of women in Bollywood cinema evolved from the 1950s to the present day, and what does this evolution indicate about changing gender roles and societal norms in India?

This is the original, unedited work by Riki. Enjoy!

1.1. The Traditional Trope: 1950s Bollywood and the Construct of Femininity

The 1950s was a transformative era for India as a newly independent nation, marking its trajectory in various fields including the cinema industry. With Bollywood as the leading film industry, the portrayal of women during this time was largely influenced by socio-cultural norms and was reflective of the perceived role of women in society. In exploring the cinematic construct of femininity during this period, it’s crucial to understand the societal backdrop and its interplay with the narratives and character archetypes prevalent in the films.

The central notion of femininity in the 1950s Bollywood was anchored by the concept of ‘Bharatiya Nari’, which translates to the ‘Indian woman’. This concept was characterized by a set of traditional virtues—submissiveness, chastity, and maternal qualities. Films like “Mother India” (Mehboob Khan, 1957) encapsulated these ideals, portraying the lead female character as the epitome of sacrifice and the motherland itself. This film not only underscored the centrality of the mother figure in Indian storytelling but also translated into a template for the creation of female characters in contemporary cinema (Kabir, 2001).

Cinematic portrayals of the era also showed a proclivity for polarized female characters—while the virtuous were glorified, those deviating from societal norms were often vilified. Actresses like Nargis and Meena Kumari were iconic in their representation of these roles, contributing to the cinematic continuation of the patriarchy. In these narratives, women’s liberation or nonconformity was frequently depicted as a tragic flaw, eventually steering the characters back to traditional roles or resulting in their downfall.

However, even within these parameters, some films began to hint at the changing tides. “Pyaasa” (Guru Dutt, 1957) presented a nuanced perspective on women who live on the fringes of society, questioning moral and societal benchmarks. Another remarkable example is “Madhumati” (Bimal Roy, 1958), where themes of reincarnation touched upon the idea of female resilience, albeit subtly and within the safe confines of supernatural lore (Gooptu, 2010).

These movies not only entertained but also evoked introspection about the social fabric. The portrayal of women in films of the 1950s displayed an intersection of idealized femininity with the undertones of a society grappling with its own traditional values amidst the push toward modernity—a narrative struggle that reflected the real-life status quo of gender roles in India. Nevertheless, as Dwyer (2000) indicates, these portrayals carved a benchmark that would influence depictions of women in Bollywood for decades.

In this era, the film industry mirrored and perpetuated patriarchal ideals, even as it slowly began to engage with themes of social change. The decade laid down a complex tapestry of femininity that was both restrictive in its norms and yet underpinned by a subtle negotiation with burgeoning modernity. It is upon this foundation that later cinematic evolutions would build more dynamic and varied representations of women in Bollywood.

1.2. Transition and Tension: The 1960s to 1970s Feminine Roles

The 1960s to 1970s marked a period of significant transition in the portrayal of women in Bollywood cinema that seemed to parallel the global movements for gender equality and emancipation. As India navigated a post-independence identity, the film industry began to reflect, challenge, and sometimes reinforce the evolving roles of women within society.

During this era, filmmakers started to explore more complex female characters, although often within the constraints of traditional narratives. Actresses like Sharmila Tagore and Waheeda Rehman brought to the screen personas that retained traditional Indian virtues while subtly pushing the boundaries. For example, Rehman’s performances in “Guide” (1965) showcased a woman’s quest for personal happiness and autonomy, echoing the sentiments of second-wave feminism (Govindan & Dutta, 2018). Tagore’s portrayal in “Aradhana” (1969) of a single mother who raises her son amidst adversities challenged the then-prevailing archetypes of dependent and submissive women.

The shifting landscape of Bollywood also witnessed the emergence of the ‘vamp’ figure – a symbol of the West-inflicted cultural threat, often characterized by a sense of moral ambiguity and sexual liberation. This delineation, while controversial, expanded the scope of female roles in cinema, leading to the creation of a complex dichotomy between the ‘traditional’ heroine and her foil, the vamp (Dwyer, 2000). Actresses like Helen, known for her cabaret numbers, embodied these more liberal and assertive figures.

Simultaneously, the rise of parallel cinema during the ’70s brought forth filmmakers who took bolder stances on gender roles, with movies such as “Ankur” (1974) and “Bhumika” (1977) highlighting women’s issues and societal oppression, leading to serious discussions about patriarchy and the Indian woman’s struggle for identity (Kabir, 2001). Such movies played a pivotal role in showcasing female characters as individuals grappling with personal and social conflicts rather than mere romantic interests.

Yet, despite these advancements, mainstream Bollywood often couched women’s liberation within a conservative framework, where progressive storylines still concluded with women assuming traditional roles. For instance, the climax of “Abhimaan” (1973) reinforces the concept that a woman’s true place stands alongside her husband, despite the narrative exploring the professional rivalry between a married couple (Mishra, 2002).

This period of Indian cinema reflects a state of tension between the portrayal of women as upholders of culture and tradition and the burgeoning need to represent their individuality and desires. This underscores the transition that was not merely cinematic but was also a reflection of the actual societal debates about women’s independence vis-à-vis traditional gender expectations in India.

In summary, the 1960s to 1970s presented a cinematic era where the portrayal of women in Bollywood was cautiously evolving, sometimes contradicting yet overall contributing to a gradual shift. It marked the beginning of a more nuanced approach to representing women on screen, signifying a mirror to the changing ideologies of the times.

2.1 From Ideal to Real: The 1980s to 1990s Transformation in Portrayal

During the 1980s and 1990s, Indian cinema, particularly Bollywood, underwent a significant transformation in the portrayal of female characters, mirroring the evolving dimensions of gender roles and societal norms in India. This era was marked by a departure from the archetypal, often subservient roles of women towards more diversified and substantial roles, reflecting a broader shift in Indian society’s perception of women both in the public and private spheres.

The 1980s marked the beginning of this shift. Characters portrayed by actresses like Smita Patil and Shabana Azmi in films such as “Arth” (1982) and “Bhumika” (1977) exemplified women with agency, confronting social and marital issues head-on. These characters were not only engaged in the pursuit of love but also in the pursuit of personal growth, career aspirations, and social justice, depicting an emergence of a new narrative that Indian women could identify with more realistically (Kapur, 2000). The national cinema movement, parallel to mainstream Bollywood, injected these progressive ideals into the larger discourse, forcing mainstream films to gradually adopt more nuanced female characters.

In the 1990s, with the liberalization of India’s economy and the consequent increase in media channels, there was a notable expansion in the representation of women on-screen. Actresses like Madhuri Dixit, Kajol, and Juhi Chawla brought to life characters that were vibrant, independent, and resilient, exhibiting a break from conventional decorum and often rebelling against societal and familial expectations. This was evident in now-iconic movies such as “Dilwale Dulhania Le Jayenge” (1995) and “Hum Aapke Hain Koun..!” (1994), which, while still reinforcing the importance of family and tradition, allowed their female protagonists a degree of assertiveness and self-expression (Dwyer, 2000).

Moreover, the influence of Western culture and feminist thought began to seep into Bollywood narratives with films such as “Damini” (1993) and “Kya Kehna” (2000). These films addressed topics like rape, single motherhood, and women’s rights more explicitly, showcasing heroines who took charge of their lives and stood up against patriarchal pressures (Gopal & Moorti, 2008). The critical and commercial success of such films indicated a growing audience appetite for stories that reflected the complex realities faced by women in contemporary India.

A shift in directorial vision was also a key driver of change. Filmmakers like Shekhar Kapur with “Bandit Queen” (1994) and Deepa Mehta with “Fire” (1996) went against the grain to project empowered female leads, thereby scrutinizing and challenging deep-seated norms about gender, sexuality, and societal roles in conservative Indian culture (Mazumdar, 2007). These films prompted public debate and marked a significant point in the cinematic journey of the Indian woman.

The transition in the portrayal of women during the 1980s and 1990s was not free from criticism or controversy. While cinema was moving towards realism, the portrayal of women often remained fraught with contradictions. Item songs and the glorification of male protagonists highlighted an ongoing tension between traditional expectations and the aspiration for modernity (Virdi, 2003).

In a nutshell, the transformation in the portrayal of women from the 1980s to the 1990s in Bollywood cinema was indicative of the larger socio-cultural changes India was undergoing. While the early part of this era saw the emergence of strong female personas, the latter part witnessed consolidation and deeper engagement with contentious issues. This period was crucial in setting the stage for the more pronounced shifts in narrative and agency that would characterize the portrayal of women in Bollywood in the new millennium.

2.2. The 1990s and the Dawn of a More Assertive On-Screen Presence

The 1990s marked a significant turning point in Bollywood cinema, with the emergence of more assertive and complex female characters. This period saw a departure from the submissive and traditional roles that women often occupied in earlier decades. Instead, there was a visible shift toward the portrayal of women as individuals with their own desires, ambitions, and agency. The decade’s evolving portrayal signals a broader change in India’s cultural and societal attitudes, reflecting the advent of global influences and a burgeoning middle class with different expectations for gender roles.

During the 1990s, Bollywood’s leading ladies began to break away from the confines of domesticity and virtuosity that had long framed their on-screen existence. The woman’s role was not just as an adjunct to the male protagonist but began to take on a life of its own. Actresses like Madhuri Dixit, Juhi Chawla, and Kajol became emblematic of this transformation. They brought to life characters that were not only romantic interests but also career-oriented, feisty, and even rebellious at times. Films like “Dilwale Dulhania Le Jayenge” (1995), which featured Kajol as the vivacious and independent Simran, showcased this transformation. The character, while rooted in Indian traditions, dreams of a life outside the prescribed norms and eventually asserts her will against patriarchal constraints (Chopra, 1995).

The introduction of women-centered narratives also became more prominent in this era. Films such as “Damini” (1993) explored the theme of women standing up against societal injustice, and “Bandit Queen” (1994) presented a stark and powerful depiction of a rural woman’s struggle for dignity amidst harsh oppression. These stories were not only commercially successful but also critically acclaimed, indicating an appetite among Indian audiences for films that engage with the realities of women’s lives.

Furthermore, the decade saw an increase in female professionals behind the camera, including writers and directors like Aparna Sen and Mira Nair, who offered fresh perspectives on the portrayal of women. Their contributions further enriched the cinematic landscape and broadened the portrayal of women beyond conventional tropes. For instance, Nair’s “Kama Sutra: A Tale of Love” (1996) challenged traditional depictions of sexuality and women’s autonomy (Nair, 1996).

Additionally, film critiques and audience expectations also played a role in this progression. Scholars such as Lalitha Gopalan have examined the depiction of women in Bollywood, noting a gradual shift toward more nuanced and assertive portrayals, which began to question established gender dynamics (Gopalan, 2002).

The changes in Bollywood cinema during the 1990s, with regards to gender portrayal, indicate an intersection of art and life. The portrayal of women on screen started mirroring the liberalization and socio-economic changes India was undergoing at the time. This period’s films and characters were not only a reaction to the changing times but also contributed to the ongoing discourse about gender roles and expectations in Indian society, making a significant imprint on both the industry and its audience.

3.1. The Rise of Women-Centric Narratives

The turn of the millennium marked a significant shift in Bollywood as the industry began to break away from the historically dominant male-centric narratives and started embracing women-led stories. This evolution in storytelling not only offered actresses roles of substance but also mirrored the changing landscape of gender roles in Indian society.

The early 2000s witnessed a wave of films that centered around strong female protagonists. Movies like “Astitva” (2000) challenged prevailing notions of patriarchy and spousal fidelity, spotlighting a woman’s search for identity beyond the traditional roles of wife and mother (Mazumdar, 2007). Another example is “Chandni Bar” (2001), which offered a gritty look at the life of a rural woman forced to work in the urban underbelly. These films hinted at a changing appetite among Indian audiences for stories that went beyond the mere representation of women as romantic interests or sidelined characters.

Furthermore, the critical and commercial success of “Kahaani” (2012) and “English Vinglish” (2012) suggested that the industry was ready to support narratives where women were not just supporting their male counterparts but driving the story themselves. These films commonly portrayed the women’s journey not just outside but equally important, within their personal spaces, often leading to a transformative self-rediscovery (Gupta, 2013).

Research on the relationship between cinema and social change reflects these shifts. Mehta and Xavier (2017) argue that cinema both responds to and influences social norms, suggesting that the increased presence of ambitious, independent women in films reflects broader socio-economic changes in India. Women were no longer relegated to the background; they were active agents of their destiny, capable of complexity and commanding the narrative focus.

The rise of women-centric narratives is also attributed to filmmakers who aimed to redefine gender representations. Directors like Deepa Mehta and Mira Nair, with films like “Water” (2005) and “Monsoon Wedding” (2001), have been instrumental in portraying women as layered individuals, facing and overcoming societal barriers. These portrayals went hand-in-hand with India’s evolving feminist movement, echoing the voices calling for equality and recognition of women’s rights.

Additionally, the introduction and popularity of regional cinema and online streaming platforms have further facilitated the exploration of diverse narratives. The stories that may have been deemed too niche for mainstream cinema have found an audience online, allowing for a broader representation of women’s experiences.

In conclusion, the 2000s marked the rise of a significant trend that saw Bollywood embrace women-centric narratives and characters with depth. This was not simply a shift in storytelling but a reflection of the transforming societal norms where women were increasingly recognized as independent and empowered individuals. Bollywood, during this era, thus, became a canvas on which newer, more progressive gender roles and societal norms were painted, reflective of the dialogue and change occurring in India at large.

3.2 Crafting Nuanced Female Characters: The 2010s

The 2010s witnessed a remarkable evolution in the portrayal of women in Bollywood, reflecting broader societal shifts and a growing insistence on nuanced, multidimensional female characters. This decade arguably broke several stereotypes associated with women in cinema, ushering in an era where female protagonists were not just support to their male counterparts but were central to the narrative, often driving the plot themselves.

Films such as “Queen” (2014) accomplished a clear departure from traditional roles, featuring a female lead character who embarks on a journey of self-discovery after her fiance calls off their wedding. The film, celebrated for Kangana Ranaut’s compelling performance, elevated the narrative around female empowerment and individualism, showcasing a woman’s resilience and her ability to thrive independently, without conforming to society’s expectations (Chakraborty, 2015). This film, among others, underscored the industry’s growing recognition of women’s agency.

Moreover, Anushka Sharma’s production “NH10” (2015) presented a gripping tale of survival and defiance, with the lead female character confronting gender-based violence and societal apathy. In such films, the female protagonists are not relegated to the role of a victim; instead, they are depicted as proactive agents capable of affecting change and challenging the status quo (Dwyer, 2016). These narratives mirrored the increasing awareness and activism around gender issues in India, including debates on women’s safety and rights.

The redefinition of femininity in cinema also coincided with an insurgence of female directors and writers such as Zoya Akhtar and Meghna Gulzar, who brought forward stories from a distinctly female perspective. Films like “Raazi” (2018), directed by Meghna Gulzar, highlight a trend wherein women are portrayed in complex roles, involving espionage and patriotism—a stark contrast from their conventional depictions. Zoya Akhtar’s “Gully Boy” (2019), while centered around a male protagonist, showcases a strong-willed and ambitious female character, reflecting the changing aspirations and the assertion of independence by women in contemporary India (Roy, 2019).

This era also saw actresses like Vidya Balan and Priyanka Chopra choosing scripts that defied the norm, playing characters that ranged from an enterprising housewife turned radio jockey in “Tumhari Sulu” (2017) to a no-nonsense, worldly-wise police officer in “Jai Gangaajal” (2016), models of female tenacity and leadership. These roles defied the conventional boundaries of Indian femininity, focusing on professional and personal aspirations that were hitherto uncommon in mainstream Bollywood cinema (Mishra, 2018).

This period in Bollywood thus represents a formative shift where the industry moved away from one-dimensional depictions to creating characters that resonate with the spirit of contemporary Indian society, where women are asserting their identities more confidently than ever before. As Indian society grapples with evolving gender dynamics, Bollywood cinema’s depiction of women becomes a canvas that both reflects and shapes these changes.

As we consider the maturation of Bollywood’s approach to female characters in the 2010s, it’s critical to acknowledge that while progress has been made, challenges still exist, including the need for more equitable representation behind the camera and the persistence of objectification and typecasting in certain segments of the industry.

4.1. Contemporary Cinema: Breaking Barriers and Redefining Roles

Contemporary Bollywood cinema has witnessed a remarkable transformation in the portrayal of women, breaking traditional barriers and redefining gender roles. The once submissive and decorative female characters, who played second fiddle to their male counterparts, are now assertive protagonists commanding their own narratives. This shift is not merely an artistic choice but reflects a larger societal transition where Indian women are increasingly asserting their rights and positions in various spheres of life.

The emergence of films like “Queen” (2014) and “Piku” (2015), where female leads are not defined by a male counterpart, showcases this evolution. Characters are no longer confined to roles of lovers, mothers, or avengers defined by their relationships with men, but are instead seen as individuals with their own dreams, motivations, and flaws (Kapur, 2017). Similarly, “Pink” (2016), which deals with consent and women’s rights, challenges the deep-seated patriarchal views, suggesting a progressive shift in cultural narratives.

This evolution of characters stems in part from the inclusion and increasing influence of female writers and directors in Bollywood, who bring new perspectives and authenticity to the portrayal of women’s experiences. Films like “Lipstick Under My Burkha” (2016) and “Raazi” (2018) prove that female-led movies can be commercially successful, thereby gradually changing the industry’s perception of what constitutes a hit film.

Moreover, social media and digital platforms have democratized content consumption, giving a voice to audiences who demand more realistic and relatable portrayals of women. These platforms also provide an opportunity for indie filmmakers to present alternative narratives that may not fit the traditional Bollywood mold. The success of these endeavors, as evidenced by streaming hits, indicates a shifting trend towards more diverse and complex female roles (Joshi, 2019).

Despite the progress in representation, the Indian film industry still grapples with issues like gender pay disparity, fewer lead roles for women, and objectification in item songs. Yet, there is a conscious effort by some filmmakers and actors to address these challenges, signifying a better understanding and altering of the gendered landscape in Bollywood’s portrayals.

In conclusion, Bollywood’s contemporary portrayal of women is breaking the normative barriers and redefining roles in a way that resonates with the changing dynamics of Indian society. This change is significant because cinema not only reflects but also has the potential to influence societal attitudes. The current trajectory Bollywood is on suggests promising prospects for the representation of women on screen. The rise in women-centric narratives, driven by audience demand and creators’ desire for diversity, hints at an evolving Bollywood that values nuanced and empowered female characters.

4.2 The Influence of Societal Changes on Bollywood’s Representation of Women

The landscape of Indian society has undergone significant shifts in the last few decades, with increased globalization, digitalization, and efforts towards gender equality affecting various aspects of life, including cinema. Bollywood, as a barometer of Indian cultural consciousness, reflects these societal changes in its portrayal of women, showcasing an evolution from stereotyped depictions to more diverse and complex representations (Kapur, 2018).

The growing feminist movement in India has played a crucial role in transforming the portrayal of women in Bollywood films. As assertions for gender equality gain momentum, Bollywood has responded by crafting narratives that challenge traditional gender roles and showcase women in positions of power and agency. In films like “Queen” (2014) and “Kahaani” (2012), the protagonists are depicted as self-reliant individuals who navigate their journeys without relying on male leads—signifying a considerable shift from the male-centric stories commonly seen in the past (Gopalan, 2002).

The impact of economic liberalization in the 1990s and the advent of the internet has also brought about changes in societal attitudes, which are reflected in contemporary Bollywood’s complex characters. Women characters in recent films are often portrayed as career-oriented professionals, reflecting the increasing number of women in the Indian workforce. Movies such as “English Vinglish” (2012) underline the multifaceted nature of women and emphasize personal growth and self-discovery, a marked departure from earlier decades where women’s aspirations were often confined within a domestic sphere (Dwyer, 2000).

Moreover, the rise of streaming platforms like Netflix and Amazon Prime has opened up new avenues for alternative narratives that may not fit into the traditional Bollywood model. This digital revolution has given filmmakers the liberty to explore taboo subjects and create more realistic depictions of women’s lives, as seen in series like “Delhi Crime” (2019) and “Bombay Begums” (2021). These narratives venture into areas of female sexuality, autonomy, and the complexities of urban womanhood, thereby amplifying voices that were historically muted in mainstream cinema (Rajagopal, 2019).

Nonetheless, the evolution of women’s portrayal in Bollywood is also met with criticism accentuating the notion that despite progressive narratives, the commodification and objectification of female characters persist. The prevalence of item songs and the scrutiny of a female actor’s physical appearance point towards a lingering patriarchal gaze, which raises concerns about the depth of the changes in gender portrayal (Mehta, 2020).

In conclusion, Bollywood’s portrayal of women is deeply intertwined with the Indian societal transformation, and recent decades have seen significant strides towards nuanced and empowering cinematic expressions of womanhood. While challenges remain, the push for a balanced depiction of genders in Bollywood indicates a positive trajectory mirroring the broader ambitions of social equality in India.


            Chakraborty, S. (2015). Review of Queen. Film Criticism Journal, 39(2), 45-47.

real book (Chopra (2002), Dilwale dulhania le jayenge =):
            Chopra, A. (Director). (1995). Dilwale Dulhania Le Jayenge [Film]. Yash Raj Films.

real book (Dwyer (2000), All You Want Is Money, All You Need Is Love):
            Dwyer, R. (2000). All You Want is Money, All You Need is Love: Sex and Romance in Modern India. Cassell.

            Dwyer, R. (2016). Bollywood’s India: A Public Fantasy. Columbia University Press.

real book (Gooptu (2010), Bengali cinema):
            Gooptu, S. (2010). Bengali Cinema: ‘An Other Nation’. Routledge.

            Gopal, S., & Moorti, S. (2008). Global Bollywood: Travels of Hindi Song and Dance. University of Minnesota Press.

real book (Gopalan (2002), Cinema of Interruptions):
            Gopalan, L. (2002). Cinema of interruptions: Action genres in contemporary Indian cinema. British Film Institute.

            Govindan, P., & Dutta, M. J. (2018). Bollywood: Globalization of Indian Cinema. Sage Publications.

            Gupta, S. (2013). Kahaani and the New Indian Woman: Negotiating Wifehood and Motherhood in New Bollywood. South Asian Popular Culture, 11(3), 257-269.

            Joshi, P. (2019). Digital platforms and their impact on Bollywood cinema. Journal of Media Studies, 34(2), 120-134.

real book (Kabir (1999), Talking Films):
            Kabir, N. M. (2001). Talking Films: Conversations on Hindi Cinema with Javed Akhtar. Oxford University Press.

real book (Kapur (2000), When was modernism):
            Kapur, J. (2000). When Was Modernism: Essays on Contemporary Cultural Practice in India. Tulika Books.

            Kapur, J. (2017). The changing roles of Bollywood women in the new millennium. International Journal of Film Studies, 15(1), 98-115.

            Kapur, J. (2018). Women and Bollywood: A New Change. Asian Women, 34(1), 75-96.

real book (Mazumdar (2007), Bombay Cinema):
            Mazumdar, R. (2007). Bombay Cinema: An Archive of the City. University of Minnesota Press.

            Mehta, D. (Director). (2005). Water [Film]. Fox Searchlight Pictures.

            Mehta, R. (2020). The contested terrain of the Indian body: Sexuality, identity, and popular culture. Routledge.

            Mehta, R., & Xavier, S. (2017). Bollywood and Globalization: The Global Power of Popular Hindi Cinema. Routledge.

            Mishra, P. (2018). Female Agency and Power in Bollywood Films of the New Millennium: The Cases of Kahaani and Queen. South Asian Popular Culture, 16(2-3), 125-143.

real book (Mishra (2001), Bollywood Cinema):
            Mishra, V. (2002). Bollywood Cinema: Temples of Desire. Routledge.

real book (Nair (2006), Kama Sutra):
            Nair, M. (Director). (1996). Kama Sutra: A Tale of Love [Film]. NDF International.

            Nair, M. (Director). (2001). Monsoon Wedding [Film]. IFC Films.

            Rajagopal, I. (2019). Intimations of modernity and the articulation of femininity in Indian popular cinema. Women’s Studies International Forum, 72, 1-9.

real book : (Jacobsen (2015), Routledge Handbook of Contemporary India):
            Roy, A. (2019). Zoya Akhtar’s Cinema of Aspiration. In Routledge Handbook of Contemporary India.

            Sen, A. (Director). (2000). Astitva [Film]. Zee Studios.

            Sen, A., & Nair, M. (1990s). Contributions to the narratives of Indian cinema [Film direction and writing].

real book (Virdi (2007), The Cinematic Imagination: Indian Popular Films as Social History):
            Virdi, J. (2003). The Cinematic ImagiNation: Indian Popular Films as Social History. Rutgers University Press.

Photo by Naganath Chiluveru on Unsplash

Like this Essay?

Share on Facebook
Share on Twitter
Share on Linkdin
Share on Pinterest

Request received.

Your essay ID: 

You’ll be mailed your essay in up to:

Please check spam.
If you don’t receive a confirmation email in the next few minutes, please contact

Buy Credits

You must sign in to purchase credits.

Don’t have an account? Let’s get started

Powered by